Monday, October 10, 2005

The United Nations: UNsuccessful, UNethical, UNeeded?


The UN will celebrate its 60th birthday on October 24th. But as Meg L., suggests below, not many will be celebrating. Chris B, goes a step further, and suggests, quoting Justin Darr, that the UN is UNsucessful, UNethnical and UNeeded. Was the UN destined to fail because of the Treaty of Westphalia and the promotion of sovereignty above individual human rights? Or, is it more simply that not one country or political leader want the UN to succeed for fear of losing its own power? What would make the UN successful? Should we just get rid of an outdated organization or rework it? Two or our guest bloggers suggest different strategies below:

“Differences between men, and between nations, will always remain. In fact, if held within reasonable limits, such disagreements are actually wholesome. All progress begins with differences of opinion and more onward as the differences are adjusted through reason and mutual understanding.”
-Harry S. Truman to the UN Assembly, April 25, 1945.

“UNsuccessful, UNethical, UNneeded”
[i]
This was one of the general guiding ideas that the United Nations was founded on in June 1945. The post World War II era was a tumultuous time in which nations fretted over national security and feared that another Hitler could rise to power. Since the UN’s creation it has been involved in nearly every conflict on the planet in one way or another. The UN has 64 different departments/offices that oversee different operations under the UN umbrella.


To state that the UN is a useless organization implies that the UN does not serve any beneficial purpose. While however great the UN was intended to be as a powerful international organization, it has not fully lived up to its potential in the last fifty years. The UN is responsible for coordinating humanitarian work around the world and striving to better the world; but the problem is no one listens to the organization and has not even lived up to the first paragraph in the entire charter. The UN has been involved in 88+ events around the world since its creation – and the UN has not maintained international peace and security. Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda, Darfur, Columbia, Afghanistan, Iraq, Vietnam, and Korea are just a few of the places where the UN has been involved and executed peace-keeping or humanitarian missions and has not helped bring peace and understanding to the warring groups.

The UN Convention on the Prevention & Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, ratified 1951 was designed to prevent genocide and mass killing from ever happening again after WWII. It was intended to be strict and tough on nations and groups that perpetrated such heinous crimes. Yet, what has happened in the former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Rwanda, and what is happening in Darfur – genocide and mass killings. Everyone in the world knows that this is happening but not enough is being done to stop it; and the UN can only point a finger and say “bad” because it does not have the actual capability to stop what is going on – member nations are not getting involved in the problem. Since the end of WWII over 81million people have died as a result of political, religious, and racial conflicts
[ii].

British writer Clair Short succinctly states: “But it is hardly surprising that, in a bitterly divided world where the world's hegemonic power has set aside international law and declared that it will act unilaterally whenever its interests are suited, it has been difficult to agree on a reform package for strengthening the UN.” The United States is arguably the most powerful member nation in the UN and it is true that the U.S. has acted unilaterally in self-interest. The fact that this is happening does not help the UN in any manner. The UN has had to weather the Iraq Oil-For-Food scandal and corruption charges. Kojo Annan (Kofi Annan’s son) used his fathers name and UN diplomatic privileges to purchase a Mercedes Benz. Because he cited diplomatic privileges and stated that the car would be used by his father in a trip to Ghana, he saved roughly $20,000 – a clear abuse of power and the system. With events like this occurring and corruption charges implicating the highest officials in the organization, the UN cannot function in the manner in which it was intended.

Some have presented the idea that he UN should be dismantled; yet even this option would not be beneficial to the international political system. Nader Mousavizadeh states in his New York Times article: “Nor is a breakup a guarantee of success, given the sheer magnitude of the task facing any organization seeking to reduce poverty, end war and alleviate suffering. At this stage, however, the burden surely falls on the proponents of the status quo -- those who cannot imagine a world without a Security Council, a General Assembly or Secretariat -- to explain what value these structures add that outweighs the profound damage they have done to the very idea of multilateral action.” To break up the UN would disrupt even further delicate political balance held by the member nations.

For the sake of intellectual argument I feel compelled to say that the UN has in fact done some good in the world. The United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime does a good job in addressing one of the worlds greatest WMD’s – narcotics. With over 100,000 people dying every year from drug related issues, the UNODC has worked hard to prevent the spread of narcotics worldwide. The UN has also done good work in helping to stop the spread of human smuggling and trafficking, a form of modern slavery which is ravaging the African continent and Eastern Europe. Their work in this field has initiated the work of many NGO’s and has helped thousands of young men and women become free. The UN also helps to bring food to the worlds poorest and neediest citizens, this is a noble cause, yet not nearly enough food is being delivered to the nations that need it the most and most of the time when delivered, the food sits in warehouses because the dictators will not distribute it. The UN has the correct idea about what is should do, but it is not doing it to the level that it should.

Over the last fifty years the United Nations has had numerous opportunities to prove its worthiness and fulfill its intended mission. Yet the UN has not even proven that it is capable of sound internal management. An international organization intended to benefit the less fortunate and needy citizens of the world should not have corruption charges and scandal lingering around. The amount of money that Kofi Annan’s son saved on his Mercedes could have purchased much needed medicine for sick children in Rwanda. It is time that the UN undergoes severe reform.
Chris B.


[i] Justin Darr, November 22, 2004
[ii] www.genocide.org

Sources Consulted
-The New York Times.
www.nytimes.com.
-The Independent. London, England.
www.independent.co.uk.
-The Evening Standard.
www.standard.co.uk.
-www.genocide.com
-The Truman Library.
www.trumanlibrary.org.

According to the U.N. website http://www.un.org,/, United Nations Day is October 24th. However, I do not think anyone will be planning a picnic or having a celebration. Since its establishment in 1945, the United Nations has been a useless organization. It has been a symbol of goodwill in a realpolitik world. Despite its inability to function as an enforcer, it does have a theoretically "good" concept. States have the tendency to violate basic norms of human rights; the U.N. believes that this should not happen. Currently the U.N. has not figured out how to prevent this, at least not effectively. The recent summit meeting held in early September proved this claim. Leaders walked away reinforcing the need for a stronger U.N., and a more "updated" version to deal with the problems facing today's world[i].

Perhaps the place to start is to show how the U.N. has become a "useless organization. When the U.N. was created, it was during an era of "global power". The new world order that was supposed to come about was "a world of peaceful national societies enjoying liberal and even certain socialist rights."[ii] Ultimately the effectiveness of the U.N. is dependent upon the individual nations. In the words of the U.N. "It is not an international police force" (http://www.un.org/geninfo/ir/ch2/ch2.htm). This is where "sovereignty" comes into play. Sovereignty: established through the Peace of Westphalia, and is perhaps one of the biggest reasons for the United Nations uselessness. Sovereignty argues that no power is greater than the state, that is, there can be no international law states must abide by. Sovereignty restrains the effectiveness of the U.N. The U.N. must comply to it and is essentially at the mercy of each nation's sovereignty. . But where does sovereignty end and the respect of human rights begin? It seems, looking at the situation in Darfur, that the U.N. has not resolved that problem. Clearly a genocide is taking place, but some countries believe it to be a civil war, in which case sovereignty wins.

Another issue with the U.N. is the problem of self-interest. Self-interest will always weigh more during situations where countries are asked to perform an action such as as ratifying a treaty or implementing a peace process. Countries such as the United States do not see themselves as having to answer to the U.N., especially where treaties are involved. One good example of this is the situation in Iraq. The United States completely ignored the U.N.'s denial of a second resolution to proceed with "armed response", and went head on into Iraq. Claiming that their self-interest was at stake, they believed their actions were, and still are, justifiable.

The final problem I will point out is lack of enforcement. The six "main" human rights treaties are as follows: The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965): The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) & First Optional Protocol: The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979): The Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984): The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989).

Christof Heyns and Frans Viljoen did a study on the impact of the treaties on individual states[iii]. Their results? These treaties have no way of being protected or enforced on a domestic level. "International enforcement mechanisms" have proven to be inefficient. They did note that countries that were most successful in incorporating the treaties did so through constitutional reform, etc. But all that depends on the individual country and its willingness to abide by ratification. The problem arises from the countries that are unwillingly to either ratify, or have ratified but cannot be forced to implement. While it is nice to think that most countries have ratified these treaties, in reality it means nothing. The treaty system is a system that is established on consent. All a country may get for not complying with ratification or implementing a policy is a trade embargo or some other menial punishment. In its current form the U.N. is useless. How do you resolve this problem?

It is not practical to have "World Government". But how then do you reconcile the need for each state to remain autonomous, yet abide by basic civil rules and regulations? How do you get countries "engaged" in establishing human rights? Many political theorists, scholars, and law people alike have pondered this question. There have been suggestions for remedies.

One interesting suggestion, offered by Nader Mousavizadeh, a United Nations political officer in Bosnia and served in office of Secretary General, is to dissolve the three "governing structures" of the U.N. (General Assembly, Security Council, and Secretariat). The responsibilities would then be shifted to other U.N. agencies that have delivered results more in line to the "founding ideals" of the U.N., such as the UNDP. Mousavizadeh's premise rests on that fact that U.N. programs which are in his words "financed by voluntary contributions, governed by a board composed of shareholders with an interest in results…and staffed by men and women, hired on the basis of merit, who are given the resources to make a difference" will have more of a chance of seeing success. Mousavizadeh's suggestions are not given without reservations, however, he puts the burden of proof on the people who believe the status quo is acceptable. I believe that in order for any of the goals of the U.N. to be reached Mousavizadeh's final words must be taken to heart.

"Working in dynamic partnership with the nongovernmental organizations, foundations and 'coalitions of the willing' that increasingly are the real agents of progress in areas like global development, health, security and human rights, free-standing United Nations agencies offer the best hope of bringing the organization's founding ideals to life"[iv]

Meg L.

Sources:

[i] Gamel, Kim. "A Stronger World Depends On A Stronger U.N., Officials Say." Philadelphia Inquirer 22 September 2005: A8.

[ii] Ishay, Micheline. The History of Human Rights: From Ancient Times to the Globalization Era. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
[iii] Heyns, Christof and Frans Viljoen. "The Impact of the United Nations Human Rights Treaties on the Domestic Level." Human Rights Quarterly 23 (2001): 483-535.
[iv] Mousavizadeh, Nader. "A Million Little Pieces." New York Times. 24 September 2005. http://Nytimes.com (6 October 2005).



41 comments:

Belma said...

I disagree with the idea that the United Nations is a useless organization, and I am troubled by the fact that Kojo Annan is brought up as an example of the so-called corruption that allegedly surrounds the UN. What about the corruption scandals that surround our NATION, the United States, on a daily basis almost, from Enron, to conflicts for oil, and to the fact that we remain on good terms with nations that commit human rights attrocities simply because these countries benefit our needs?
As I have stated many times in class, it is impossible for the UN to be a powerful body that has the potential to inflluence people, and correct wrongs, if nations that are considered to be world leaders (one of them being the USA) continue to blatantly disregard all of the UN's prescriptions. Why would a small third-world countries be expected to go along with the suggestions offered up by the UN, when a country like England, or the USA do not abide by what they have signed onto?
As I said before, using Kojo Annan as an example of why the UN does not work is absolutely ridiculous, because it is basically the same thing as saying, "Hey, your son committed this wrong, so as a result, all that you, the father, have struggled to achieve in your life is basically cancelled out, and worthless from this point on." Yeah, Kojo may have taken his dad's money, but how much money do royal families around the world take from corrupt leaders? How many millions are "earned" by people in high positions (such as presidents of world powers) solely due to their monopoly of access to oil? How many people, not only in Rwanda, but our ENTIRE WORLD, INCLUDING THE USA, could have been fed with the money that was used to build president Bush's ranch in Texas, or the money that is used to fund a shoe collection of the wife of an African nation's president?

Chris B said...

I think that you are entitled to your views, however I do not think it is appropriate to make an inference on my opinion and insinuate that I stated something when in fact I did not. My use of Kojo Annan was not designed to discredit his fathers work over the years – that was your statement, not mine. The example of Kojo is intended to show the lack of current accountability and faulty management at the UN.
As you also stated: “How many millions are 'earned' by people in high positions (such as presidents of world powers) solely due to their monopoly of access to oil?” That is a very powerful statement and I would like to see hard documented evidence that can substantiate these claims. It might be true that other world leaders have engaged in activities that are not moral but evidence is needed to support the claims. Kojo Annan’s poor choices are documented activities that indicate lack of accountability and faulty management of UN funds.
In Kojo’s case, yes it is true that the money saved could have been used in any country, the U.S., Congo, or Sudan. I chose Rwanda as a country that could have used the financial support because it is one of many nations that could benefit from international contributions to help solve the problems that are plaguing the country.
It will be difficult for the UN to turn a new page and resolve the many problems that are bringing the organization down. But as I opened my entry with a quote form President Truman: “All progress begins with differences of opinion and more onward as the differences are adjusted through reason and mutual understanding”; the problems need to but laid out, as uncomfortable as they may be to talk about or as controversial as they may be – it is still necessary to do in order to work towards a better UN.

Belma said...

Over break I did a lot of research on this topic, and even spoke to someone who works in the UN, so I can safely say that you were completely wrong when you stated: "Kojo Annan’s poor choices are documented activities that indicate lack of accountability and faulty management of UN funds." These activities were never actually proven (so therefore, they couldn't clearly be documented either), so the mere fact that you tried to base your whole idea on this theory is completely off. I think it's really wonderful that you began your post with the Truman quotation ("All progress begins with difference of opinion and more onward as the differences are adjusted through reason and mutual understanding”); however, there is a difference between a disagreement of opinions, and complete disregard for an organization whose sole purpose is to aid in the mission toward world peace, so therefore, I don't see how this quotation would apply. Our own country's president completely disregards the United Nations, making a mockery of it through, for example, his actions in Iraq (among other faults). Who cares if there is a difference of opinion among two different parties, when one of the parties doesn't even care what the other side has to say? Who cares what the UN has to say about conflict and war, when in the end, the world's most powerful country won't take a moment to listen, and actually FOLLOW THROUGH on the UN's perscription?

Chris B said...

I thought that this article from BBC News was particularly interesting. It is also related to the ongoing debate.


UN acts to halt abuses by staff

The UN has tightened the rules for its staff, following a series of rows over claims of financial impropriety and sexual abuse involving UN employees.

Top UN officials will now have to fill out financial disclosure forms about themselves, their spouses and children.

The new rules also define sexual abuse or exploitation as serious misconduct that can provide grounds for dismissal.

UN staff have been recently accused of corruptly administering the $60bn (£34bn) oil-for-food scheme for Iraq.

In a separate scandal, UN peacekeepers in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been accused of sexually exploiting local women.

The BBC's Laura Trevelyan at the UN headquarters in New York says the world body is now trying to put rules in place that will stop such problems again damaging its reputation.

Damning report

The financial disclosure forms for staff in high-ranking UN posts is seen as attempt to avoid conflicts of interests or allegations that employees are using their positions for personal gain.

UN Secretary General Kofi Annan was rebuked by the oil-for-food enquiry for failing to adequately investigate his son's links with a company bidding for lucrative contracts.

Last month's highly critical report by an independent panel found instances of "illicit, unethical and corrupt" behaviour during the scheme.

The report also blamed Mr Annan for mismanagement.

Sex ban

The UN staff regulations have also being rewritten to say that sexual exploitation and sexual abuse constitute serious misconduct for which employees can be sacked.

The move follows allegations of sexual exploitation of local women by peacekeepers in DR Congo that started emerging in early 2004.

UN peacekeepers have been accused of using food and money to pay girls as young as 12 to have sex with them.

In February, the UN announced that its troops in DR Congo were ordered not to have sexual relations with Congolese.

Six Nepalese peacekeepers who served in DR Congo were sentenced to prison for sexual abuse in July.

In February, six Moroccan peacekeepers working in DR Congo were arrested on suspicion of being involved in sexually exploiting women and girls.

And in neighbouring Burundi in July, two peacekeepers were sacked after having sex with prostitutes and minors.

Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/americas/4354934.stm

Published: 2005/10/18 20:52:50 GMT

© BBC MMV

Belma said...

To me, this article means nothing...if all it takes is ONE article in order to sway your opinion to consider something that is a POSSIBILITY as a FACT, then there is a larger problem at stake here. There's nothing more tragic that blind faith, especially when it is blind faith in the media. There are plenty of articles that are relesed about positive effects of the UN as well, and in my book, an "accusation" is something that is NOT a fact by any means, until it is proven. Funny, our own country went into Iraq as a result of an accusation, which they showcased as the truth (even though it was anything but that), and look where it got us.

Chris B said...

A fundamental part of debate is considering all relevant aspects of a given topic. This includes presenting positions that are sometimes controversial. In order to correct a problem or perceived problem attention must be focused on the relevant subject. In the case of the United Nations there has been a reoccurring debate (in newspapers, talk radio, academic papers, etc.) on the management and practices of the organization. The article from the BBC is one of many published pieces that serves to address identified problem areas of the organization. Even if the identified problem is an accusation or not thoroughly documented over a long period of time, it still raises a red flag. I think that it is unfortunate that the BBC article means nothing to you – it is a well written news article that is intended to bring more attention to an obviously controversial subject. For BBC News, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and other news outlets to invest resources to produce an article on a topic there must be a reason – it is that people around the world believe that there is a problem and that it needs to be addressed. As you stated that the U.S. went into Iraq based on an accusation, it was through focused media attention and international spotlight on the subject that investigations started and conclusions reached. Though it turned out that there were no WMD’s, the subject and accusations were investigated and a conclusion was reached. I believe that the debate on the UN being a useless organization plagued with problems of mismanagement and corruption is a similar case. People care about the topic and want to find answers – someone needs to show the accusations no matter how controversial they may be or what their own personal feelings are about the topic.

Belma said...

I believe that the UN will remain completely powerless as long as countries such as the United States (and other world powers) continue to ignore its perscriptions for peace, because these perscriptions do not benefit them. There are plenty of accussations that are written about every day, but I refuse to completely throw away all that the UN has accomplished (and attempted to accomplish) as a result of accusations that may have been directed at the son of the Secretary General. As far as newspapers and media outlets investing resources in order to produce articles, I disagree that there has to be a legitimate reason why these media outlets are covering these particular issues. I mean, have you ever heard of a little network called "Fox News?" Who's behind that sick brand of conservative, Republican propaganda?

Kelly L. said...

Belma,
I think it is unfortunate that you are so blinded by your own opinions that you cannot even consider Chris's position. He makes some very good points. The media is an extremely important entity in raising awareness about issues worldwide and cannot be disregarded all the time. I understand that you are upset about the US decision to go into Iraq, but I think your anger is misplaced if you claim that you "disagree that there has to be a legitimate reason why these media outlets are covering these particular issues." Consider the article Dr. D handed out in class about the Vice-President. Isn't educating the public about decisions that their elected officials are making, as well as corruption in other political arenas such as the UN, an important aspect of democracy? How can the public be expected to ask for a change if we cannot rely on articles, such as the BBC article Chris pointed out, to open our eyes to problems that we otherwise would not have any knowledge of?

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